History of Tinsukia

Tinsukia district has a history that has instances of the entire north east hitched on to it. The ancient name of Tinsukia district was ‘Bangmara’. And as has been found out from history of Tinsukia, the area was initially known as the Changmai Pathar and Tinsukia was the capital of Muttack Kingdom.
History of Tinsukia
Bangmara city was built during the reign of King Sarbananda Singha, along with the help of his minister Gopinath Barbaruah. The city was built in the heart of the Tinsukia district and as per the instructions of King Sarbananda Singha, a triangular shaped pond as dug by Godha Baruah which came to be known as the ‘tinikuniya pukhuri; meaning three-cornered pond. Gradually, the Dibru – Sadiya rail line was constructed and after the set up the city came to be popularly known as ‘Tinsukia’.

The Muttack kingdom played a significant role in the history of Tinsukia district for the Muttacks or the Moamareeyas changed the course of the Ahom rule with their historic rebellion. This rebellion started by the Muttacks was considered as the first socio-political movement in the history of Tinsukia district.

According to the map that was prepared in the year 1841 by captain Hamilton Vetch, a huge portion of both Dibrugarh and Tinsukia district was identified as “Bangmara Country of Moamareeya Tribe”. In the later part, Bangmara city was known as the Muttack City of Soumar.

Tinsukia Muttack Kingdom

History says that the the First King of Muttack Kingdom was Swargadeo Sarbananda Singha, who established his capital at Rangagarah situated in the bank of Guijan River. During his reign, Swargadeo Sarbananda Singha was considered as an able and a responsible administrator. The history of Tinsukia District clearly mentions his determination, spirit and zest for freedom. It was in the year 1791 AD that he had transferred his capital to Bangmara. A huge number of tanks were dug up during the days of Sarbananda Singha namely Na-Pukhari, Chauldhuwa Pukhari, Kumbhi Pukhari, Da Dharua Pukhari, Bator Pukhari, Mahdhuwa Pukhari,  Logoni Pukhari, Kadamoni Pukhari, Devi Pukhari, Rupahi Pukhari, etc. not only ponds, but also a great number of roads were constructed different parts of the Muttack territory such as Godha-Borbaruah road, Rangagarah road, Rajgor road and Hatiali road.

Historic Events in Tinsukia

In the year 1823, tea plant was discovered by the British East India Company in Sadiya and the first Tea Plantation was started near Tinsukia in Chabua. The name Chabua comes from "Chah-Buwa" (Tea History of TinsukiaPlantation).

Some of the very important events that took place under the British regime in the Tinsukia district are as follows:

Year 1876
Coal was found near Ledo and Margherita

Year 1882
Crude Oil was struck for the first time in Digboi

Year 1889
Country’s first oil well was built at Digboi Oil Town and the Digboi refinery that was built later was the first refinery in Asia and the third in the World

The establishment of Railway and Trading Company in the region was a major turning point in its economic development which has also been a turning point in the history of Tinsukia.

Year 1897
The First educational institute of Tinsukia, Adarsha Prathamik Vidyalaya was established in this year.

Year 1947
Tinsukia declared as the 23rd administrative district of Assam with three dub-divisions namely Margherita, Tinsukia and Sadiya.

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